Streptococcus is the general term for a diverse group of gram-positive cocci that appear in chains or pairs. The most prevalent of the human streptococcal pathogens are the Lancefield group A Streptococcus (GAS). This review article provides an update on group A streptococcal infections with key highlights on classification, presentation, the latest diagnostic criteria, management protocols, and complications. Background: Group A Streptococcus is involved in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of pathologic conditions varying from noninvasive infections such as pharyngitis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, and cellulitis to invasive diseases, such as bacterial sepsis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing fasciitis. It is also linked with nonsuppurative and postinfectious immunological sequelae, such as acute rheumatic fever (ARF), poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with Streptococcus pyogenes (PANDAS). Globally around 18 million people suffer from GAS-related illnesses. Conclusion: Group A streptococcal infections have a high prevalence and morbidity across the globe, especially in developing countries. Children older than 3 years have a higher risk of such complications necessitating need for proper diagnosis and treatment.
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