Pediatric Infectious Disease

Register      Login

VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Revealing the Culprit behind the Pediatric Respiratory Infections: A Step-up Approach

Subramanya N Krishnamurthy, Liz Mary Paul

Keywords : BioFire, Bronchiolitis, Pediatric respiratory infection, Pharyngitis, Pneumonia

Citation Information : Krishnamurthy SN, Paul LM. Revealing the Culprit behind the Pediatric Respiratory Infections: A Step-up Approach. Pediatr Inf Dis 2019; 1 (4):142-144.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1218

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; The Author(s).


Respiratory infections are caused by a vast number of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Many of these have nonspecific symptoms and do not have a final diagnosis in resource-limited settings—due to either economic reasons or lack of diagnostic facilities. A good understanding of the tests available would be of immense help, especially in critically ill patients in whom knowing the exact causative organism is mandatory to shift from empirical treatment to a more specific treatment plan. There are even rapid test formats which have good sensitivity for common respiratory infections encountered in outpatient set-up.

PDF Share
  1. Pneumonia: The forgotten killer of children. Geneva, The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)/World Health Organization (WHO), 2006, available from:
  2. GBD. 2015 Mortality and causes of death Collaborators. global, regional, and national life expectancy, allcause mortality, and cause-specifi c mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2015. Lancet 2016;388(10053):1459–1544. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1.
  3. Nair H, Nokes DJ, Gessner BD, et al. Global burden of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. lancet. 2010;375(9725):1545–1555. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60206-1Available from:
  4. Balasubramanian S, Amperayani S, Dhanalakshmi K, et al. Rapid antigen diagnostic testing for the diagnosis of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci pharyngitis. Natl Med J India 2018;31(1):8–10. DOI: 10.4103/0970-258X.243433.
  5. Luderer R, Kok M, Niesters HG, et al. Real-time Epstein-Barr virus PCR for the diagnosis of primary EBV infections and EBV reactivation. Mol Diagn 2005;9(4):195–200. DOI: 10.1007/bf03260091.
  6. Bauer CC, Aberle S, Kraupp TP, et al. Serum Epstein–Barr virus DNA load in primary Epstein–Barr virus infection. J Med Virol 2005;75(1):54–58. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.20237.
  7. Mark IN, Marvin B. Evaluation of a rapid urine antigen assay for the detection of invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Pediatrics 2003;112(6):1279–1282. DOI: 10.1542/peds.112.6.1279.
  8. Qu J, Gu L, Wu J, et al. Accuracy of IgM antibody testing, FQ-PCR and culture in laboratory diagnosis of acute infection by mycoplasma pneumoniae in adults and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia. BMC Infect Dis 2013;13(1):172. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-172.
  9. Dorairaj A, Kopula SS, Kumar K. Atypical pneumonia - screening in a tertiary care centre. J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9(11):DC18–DC20. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/16499.6835.
  10. Chartrand C, Tremblay N, Renaud C, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Microbiol 2015;53(12):3738–3749. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01816-15.
  11. Leber AL, Everhart K, Daly JA, et al. Multicenter evaluation of biofire FilmArray respiratory panel 2 for detection of viruses and bacteria in nasopharyngeal swab samples. J Clin Microbiol 2018;56(6):e01945-17. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01945-17.
  12. Lee AD, Cassiday PK, Pawloski LC, et al. Clinical evaluation and validation of laboratory methods for the diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infection: culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and anti-pertussis toxin IgG serology (IgG-PT). PLoS ONE 2018;13(4):e0195979. DOI:
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.