Pediatric Infectious Disease

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2020 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Coronavirus Disease-2019 and More: The Story of Coronaviruses So Far

Malavalli V Bhavana, Apurva S Amarnath, Satish K Amarnath

Keywords : Coronavirus, Coronavirus disease-2019, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

Citation Information : Bhavana MV, Amarnath AS, Amarnath SK. Coronavirus Disease-2019 and More: The Story of Coronaviruses So Far. Pediatr Inf Dis 2020; 2 (2):55-61.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1265

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 14-10-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Coronaviruses are not new to the human population. These enveloped ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses have been the cause for various respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. They have caused serious epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) earlier. Now, we are battling the current pandemic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Though this novel virus has relatively low fatality, it has engulfed the word due to its high infectivity. This review is an attempt to take you through the story of coronaviruses so far, highlighting their virology, evolution, and spectrum of diseases. We have reviewed the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy, newborns and children, testing and preventive strategies, herd immunity, and the way forward in this ongoing battle.


PDF Share
  1. Woo PCY, Lau SKP, Lam CSF, et al. Discovery of seven novel mammalian and avian coronaviruses in Deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. J Virol 2012;86(7):3995–4008. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.06540-11.
  2. Fung TS, Liu DX. Human coronavirus: host-pathogen interaction. Annu Rev Microbiol 2019;73(1):529–557. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-micro-020518-115759.
  3. Neuman BW, Adair BD, Yoshioka C, et al. Supramolecular architecture of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus revealed by electron cryomicroscopy. J Virol 2006;80(16):7918–7928. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00645-06.
  4. Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol 2015;1282:1–23. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1.
  5. Tyrrell DA, Bynoe ML. Cultivation of viruses from a high proportion of patients with colds. Lancet 1966;1(7428):76–77. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(66)92364-6.
  6. Hamre D, Procknow JJ. A new virus isolated from the human respiratory tract. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1966;121(1):190–193. DOI: 10.3181/00379727-121-30734.
  7. McIntosh K, Becker WB, Chanock RM. Growth in suckling-mouse brain of “IBV-like” viruses from patients with upper respiratory tract disease. ProcNatl Acad Sci USA 1967;58(6):2268–2273. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.58.6.2268.
  8. Almeida JD, Tyrrell DA. The morphology of three previously uncharacterized human respiratory viruses that grow in organ culture. J Gen Virol 1967;1(2):175–178. DOI: 10.1099/0022-1317- 1-2-175.
  9. Witte KH, Tajima M, Easterday BC. Morphologic characteristics and nucleic acid type of transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch 1968;23(1-2):53–70. DOI: 10.1007/BF01242114.
  10. Tyrrell DAJ, Almeida JD, Cunningham CH, et al. Coronaviridae. Intervirology 1975;5(1–2):76–82. DOI: 10.1159/000149883.
  11. Monto AS. Medical reviews: coronaviruses. Yale J Biol Med 1974;47(4):234–251.
  12. Callow KA, Parry HF, Sergeant M, et al. The time course of the immune response to experimental coronavirus infection of man. Epidemiol Infect 1990;105(2):435–446. DOI: 10.1017/s0950268800048019.
  13. McIntosh K, Chao RK, Krause HE, et al. Coronavirus infection in acute lower respiratory tract disease of infants_see comment. J Infect Dis 1974;130(5):502–507. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/130.5.502.
  14. Wenzel RP, Hendley JO, Davies JA, et al. Coronavirus infections in military recruits. Three-year study with coronavirus strains OC43 and 229E. Am Rev Respir Dis 1974;109(6):621–624. DOI: 10.1164/arrd.1974.109.6.621.
  15. McIntosh K, Ellis EF, Hoffman LS, et al. Association of viral and bacterial respiratory infection with exacerbations of wheezing in young asthmatic children. Chest 1973;63(suppl):43S. DOI: 10.1378/chest.63.4_supplement.43s.
  16. Falsey AR, McCann RM, Hall WJ, et al. The “common cold” in frail older persons: impact of rhinovirus and coronavirus in a senior daycare center. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45(6):706–711. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1997.tb01474.x.
  17. Falsey AR, Walsh EE, Hayden FG. Rhinovirus and coronavirus infection-associated hospitalizations among older adults. J Infect Dis 2002;185(9):1338–1341. DOI: 10.1086/339881.
  18. Haring J, Pearlman S. Mouse hepatitis virus. Curr Opin Microbiol 2001;4(4):462–466. DOI: 10.1016/s1369-5274(00)00236-8.
  19. Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet 2020;395(10226):809–815. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3.
  20. Schwartz DA. An analysis of 38 pregnant women with COVID-19, their newborn infants, and maternal-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal coronavirus infections and pregnancy outcomes. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2020(7). DOI: 10.5858/arpa.2020-0901-SAOnline ahead of print.
  21. Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, et al. A novel coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature 2020;579(7798):265–269. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3.
  22. Wenzhong LIU, Hualan LI. COVID-19 disease: ORF8 and surface glycoprotein inhibit heme metabolism by binding to porphyrin. 2020. https://chemrxiv.org/ndownloader/files/22283226 accessed on 05.05.2020.
  23. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395(10223): 497–506. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
  24. Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med 2020;8(4):420–422. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X.
  25. Cao X. COVID-19: immunopathology and its implications for therapy. Nat Rev Immunol 2020;20(5):269–270. DOI: 10.1038/s41577-020- 0308-3.
  26. Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Uyeki TM. Effects of influenza on pregnant women and infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012;207(3 Suppl):S3–S8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.06.068.
  27. Mullins E, Evans D, Viner RM, et al. Coronavirus in pregnancy and delivery: rapid review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2020;55(5):586–592. DOI: 10.1002/uog.22014.
  28. Wang X, Zhou Z, Jianping Z, et al. A case of 2019 novel coronavirus in a pregnant woman with preterm delivery. Clin Infect Dis 2020(15):ciaa200. DOI: 10.1111/aos.14584.
  29. Liu Y, Chen H, Tang K, et al. Clinical manifestations and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. J Infect 2020. pii: S0163-4453(20)30109-2.
  30. Zhu H, Wang L, Fang C, et al. Clinical analysis of 10 neonates born to mothers with 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Transl Pediatr 2020;9(1):51–60. DOI: 10.21037/tp.2020.02.06.
  31. Hong H, Wang Y, Chung HT, et al. Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in newborns, infants and children. Pediatr Neonatol 2020;61(2):131–132. DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2020.03.001.
  32. Karimi-Zarchi M, Zanbagh L, Javaheri A, et al. Vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) from infected pregnant mothers to neonates: a review. Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2020. 1–5. DOI: 10.1080/15513815.2020.1745970.
  33. Dong L, Tian J, He S, et al. Possible vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from an infected mother to her newborn. JAMA 2020;323(18):1846–1848. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.4621.
  34. Li B, Yang J, Zhao F, et al. Prevalence and impact of cardiovascular metabolic diseases on COVID-19 in China. Clin Res Cardiol 2020;109(5):531–538. DOI: 10.1007/s00392-020-01626-9.
  35. Lam CM, Wong SF, Leung TN, et al. A case-controlled study comparing clinical course and outcomes of pregnant and non-pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome. BJOG 2004;111(8):771–774. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00199.x.
  36. Zimmermann P, Curtis N. Coronavirus infections in children including COVID-19: an overview of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention options in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020;39(5):355–368. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002660.
  37. Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, et al. Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in china. Pediatrics 2020;145(6):e20200702. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2020-0702.
  38. Shen K, Yang Y, Wang T, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts’ consensus statement. World J Pediatr 2020;16(3):223–231. DOI: 10.1007/s12519-020-00343-7.
  39. National Health Commission of People's Republic of China. Diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus (trial version 4). https://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/20200 accessed on 1st May 2020.
  40. Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association; Editorial Board, Chinese Journal of Pediatrics. Recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and control of the 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children (first interim edition). Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2020;58: 169–174.
  41. Choi S-H, Kim HW, Kang J-M, et al. Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children. Clin Exp Pediatr 2020;63(4):125–132. DOI: 10.3345/cep.2020.00535.
  42. Chen ZM, Fu JF, Shu Q, et al. Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus. World J Pediatr 2020(3):240–246. DOI: 10.1007/s12519-020-00345-5.
  43. Xia W, Shao J, Guo Y, et al. Clinical and CT features in pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection: different points from adults. Pediatr Pulmonol 2020;55(5):1169–1174. DOI: 10.1002/ppul.24718.
  44. https://www.icmr.nic.in/content/covid-19.
  45. Fan BE, Chong VCL, Chan SSW, et al. Hematologic parameters in patients with COVID-19 infection. Am J Hematol 2020;95(6):E131–E134. DOI: 10.1002/ajh.25774.
  46. Liu Y, Du X, Chen J, et al. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as an independent risk factor for mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. J Infect 2020;81(1):e6–e12. DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.002.
  47. Herold T, Jurinovic V, Arnreich C, et al. Elevated levels of IL-6 and CRP predict the need for mechanical ventilation in COVID-19. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020;146(1):128–136.
  48. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/guidelines-clinical-specimens.html.
  49. https://www.ifcc.org/ifcc-news/2020-03-26-ifcc-information-guide-on-covid-19/.
  50. fda.gov/media/136314/download.
  51. Zhao J, Yuan Q, Wang H, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients of novel coronavirus disease 2019. Clin Infect Dis 2020;ciaa344.
  52. https://www.fda.gov/media/136522/download.
  53. Lurie N, Saville M, Hatchett R, et al. Developing COVID-19 vaccines at pandemic speed. N Engl J Med 2020;382(21):1969–1973. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2005630.
  54. Kwok KO, Lai F, Wei WI, et al. Herd immunity - estimating the level required to halt the COVID-19 epidemics in affected countries. J Infect 2020;80(6):e32–e33. DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.027pii: S0163-4453(20)30154-7.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.