Community-acquired pneumonia in children is a common infection but can be potentially serious in some, leading to hospitalization in those with severe or complicated pneumonias. Diagnosis can be made with appropriate history and relevant clinical examination. Viral and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections remain the most common cause of CAP in preschool children, whereas Mycoplasma pneumoniae can present more commonly in older children. Treatment with the appropriate antibiotics is crucial, especially with the increasing prevalence of viral and bacterial co-infections as well as emerging antibiotic resistance. Appropriate dosage and duration of antibiotics are determined by the severity or complications involved. In addition, immunization is extremely important for prevention of CAP in children.
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