Pediatric Infectious Disease

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2021 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Children

Gunjan Baweja, Rajdeep Singh

Keywords : Atypical pneumonia, Community-acquired pneumonia, Extrapulmonary manifestations, Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Citation Information : Baweja G, Singh R. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Children. Pediatr Inf Dis 2021; 3 (3):95-98.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1243

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 16-09-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia in school-aged children and adults and the incidence is also increasing in other age groups. It has a varied presentation and apart from respiratory system involvement, it also involves many other systems of the body. In children, central nervous system involvement is very common followed by dermatological, hematological, and other systems. Extrapulmonary manifestations can even cause long-term sequel. Since this organism does not have a cell wall, the diagnosis is always difficult and a strong possibility has to be kept in mind so that the treatment can be started early. The choice of antibiotics is limited, as beta-lactam antibiotics (which act on the cell wall) do not act on it. In this article, we have reviewed the up-to-date knowledge of M. pneumoniae infection in children.


PDF Share
  1. Bajantri B, Venkatram S, Diaz-Fuentes G. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a potentially severe infection. J Clin Med Res 2018;10(7):535–544. DOI: 10.14740/jocmr3421w.
  2. Vallego JG, et al., Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children. Uptodate January 2020.
  3. Mejias A, Ramila O. Mycoplasma infections. ed. Kliegman RobertM. Nelson Text book of Pediatrics. 20th ed., Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016. pp. 1487–1490.
  4. Hayflick L, Chanock RM. The mycoplasma (PPLO) species of man. Bacteriol Rev 1965;29(2):185–221. DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.29.2.185-221.1965.
  5. Hayflick L, Stanbridge E. Isolation and identification of mycoplasma from human clinical material. Ann New York Acad Sci 1967;143(1):5–6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1967.tb27636.x.
  6. Hayflick L. The Mycoplasmatales and the L-phase of bacteria. New York: New Holland Publishing Company; 1969.
  7. Marmion BP. Eaton agent-science and scientific acceptance: a historical commentary. Rev Infect Dis 1990;12(2):338–353. DOI: 10.1093/clinids/12.2.338.
  8. Saraya T. The history of mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Front Microbiol 2016;7:364. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00364.
  9. Eaton MD, Meiklejohn G, van Herick W. Studies on the etiology of primary atypical pneumonia. A filterable agent transmissible to cotton rats, hamsters, and chick embryos. J Exp Med 1944;79(6): 649–668. DOI: 10.1084/jem.79.6.649.
  10. Waites KB, Xiao L, Liu Y, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae from respiratory tract and beyond. Clin Microbiol Rev 2017;30(3):747–809. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00114-16.
  11. Diaz MH, Benitez AJ, Winchell JM. Investigations of mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in United States: trends in molecular typing and macrolide resistance from 2006 to 2013. J Clin Microbiol 2015;53(1):124–130. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.02597-14.
  12. Jain S, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, et al. Community acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children. New Engl J Med 2015(9):372–835. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1405870.
  13. Dumke R, Catrein I, Herrmann R, et al. Preference, adaptation and survival of Mycoplasma pneumoniae subtypes in animal models. Int J Med Microbiol 2004;294(2-3):149–155. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2004.06.020.
  14. Yang J, Hooper WC, Phillips DJ, et al. Cytokines in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2004;15(2-3):157–168. DOI: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2004.01.001.
  15. Janney FA, Lee LT, Howe C. Cold hemagglutinin crossreactivity with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Infect Immun 1978;22(1):29–33. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.22.1.29-33.1978.
  16. Narita M. Pathogenesis of extrapulmonary manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection with special reference to pneumonia. J Infect Chemothe 2010;16(3):162–169. DOI: 10.1007/s10156-010-0044-x.
  17. Waites KB, Crabb DM, Duffy LB. In vitro activities of ABT-773 and other antimicrobials against human mycoplasmas. Antimicrob Agents Chemothe 2003;47(1):39–42. DOI: 10.1128/aac.47.1.39-42.2003.
  18. Waites KB, Brabb DM, Duffy LB. Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of human mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas to a new investigational ketotide CEM - 101. Antimicrobial Agents Chemothe 2009;53(5): 139–2141. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00090-09.
  19. Kutty PK, Jain S, Taylor TH, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae among children hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Disease 2019;68(1):5. DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciy419.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.