Pediatric Infectious Disease

Register      Login

VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2023 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Demographic and Diagnostic Predictors of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children of Less than 2 Years Presenting with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection

Nikhil Raj, Priyanka Gupta, Dipti Agarwal, Jyotsna Agarwal, Jaya Garg

Keywords : Acute lower respiratory infection, Children, Respiratory syncytial virus, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Citation Information : Raj N, Gupta P, Agarwal D, Agarwal J, Garg J. Demographic and Diagnostic Predictors of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children of Less than 2 Years Presenting with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection. Pediatr Inf Dis 2023; 5 (4):109-113.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1405

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 14-12-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Background: Worldwide respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading infectious causes of acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) and related death in children under the age of 2 and it accounts for 60–80% of bronchiolitis presentations in developing countries like India. The present study was done to determine the diagnostic and demographic predictors of RSV in children <2 years old who presented with ARTI. Materials and methods: This was a pilot study that was performed over a period of 18 months in a tertiary healthcare facility in Northern India. A total of 55 nasopharyngeal swab samples from cases with ARTI presentation were collected in viral transport media (VTM) and were tested for RSV using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Result: A total of 55 clinically suspected cases of ARTI with age <2 years, eight (14.5%) cases were positive for RSV RT-PCR, male gender, ear discharge, risk factors such as premature birth, bottle feeding, and chest X-ray findings such as hyperinflation had a significant association with children with RSV (p < 0.05) which can be used as diagnostic predictors for RSV during the study period peak of RSV cases occurred in between November and December (winter season). Conclusion: Diagnostic predictors are very important in identifying RSV in resource-limited countries like India where an expensive, technically cumbersome, and complex molecular confirmatory test is not possible. This study identifies a set of risk factors, demographic characteristics, and radiological findings that will guide clinicians to start management for RSV.

  1. Simoes EAF, Cherian T, Chow J, et al. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006.
  2. Hasan MM, Saha KK, Yunus RM, et al. Prevalence of acute respiratory infections among children in India: regional inequalities and risk factors. Matern Child Health J 2022;26(7):1594–1602. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-022-03424-3
  3. Piedimonte G, Perez MK. Respiratory syncytial virus infection and bronchiolitis. Pediatr Rev 2014;35(12):519–530. DOI: 10.1542/pir.35-12-519
  4. Ghia C, Rambhad G. Disease burden due to respiratory syncytial virus in Indian pediatric population: a literature review. Clin Med Insights Pediatr 2021;15:11795565211029250. DOI: 10.1177/11795565211029250
  5. Respiratory Syncytial. Virus (RSV). Available from:
  6. American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Diagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis. Diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 2006;118(4):1774–1793. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2223
  7. Eiland LS. Respiratory syncytial virus: diagnosis, treatment and prevention. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2009;14(2):75–85. DOI: 10.5863/1551-6776-14.2.75
  8. Babu BVS, Gunasekaran P, Venkataraman P, et al. Prevalence and molecular characterization of circulating respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Chennai, South India during 2011-2014. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia 2016;13(2):1055–1062. DOI: 10.13005/bbra/2132
  9. Gupta S, Shamsundar R, Shet A, et al. Prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus infection among hospitalized children presenting with acute lower respiratory tract infections. Indian J Pediatr 2011;78(12):1495–1497. DOI: 10.1007/s12098-011-0491-0
  10. Singh AK, Jain A, Jain B, et al. Viral aetiology of acute lower respiratory tract illness in hospitalised paediatric patients of a tertiary hospital: one year prospective study. Indian J Med Microbiol 2014;32(1):13–18. DOI: 10.4103/0255-0857.124288
  11. Panda S, Mohakud NK, Suar M, et al. Etiology, seasonality, and clinical characteristics of respiratory viruses in children with respiratory tract infections in Eastern India (Bhubaneswar, Odisha). J Med Virol 2017;89(3):553–558. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24661
  12. Pangesti KNA, El Ghany MA, Kesson AM, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus in the Western pacific region: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Glob Health 2019;9(2):020431. DOI: 10.7189/jogh.09.020431
  13. Heikkinen T, Thint M, Chonmaitree T. Prevalence of various respiratory viruses in the middle ear during acute otitis media. N Engl J Med 1999;340(4):260–264. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199901283400402
  14. Szczawińska-Popłonyk A, Komasińska P, Tąpolska-Jóźwiak K, et al. RSV versus non-RSV bronchiolitis in infants and young children – the bedside characteristics of one epidemic season. Pediatr Pol 2019;94(1):18–24. DOI: 10.5114/polp.2019.83738
  15. Jang MJ, Kim YJ, Hong S, et al. Positive association of breastfeeding on respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized infants: a multicenter retrospective study. Clin Exp Pediatr 2019;63(4):135–140. DOI: 10.3345/kjp.2019.00402
  16. Welliver RC. Review of epidemiology and clinical risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. J Pediatr 2003;143(5 Suppl):S112–117. DOI: 10.1067/s0022-3476(03)00508-0
  17. Hindupur A, Menon T, Dhandapani P. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infections in Chennai, South India. Clin EpidemiolGlob Health 2019;7(3):288–292. DOI: 10.1016/j.cegh.2018.10.004
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.