This article on antiviral drugs is aimed at providing recommendations for treatment of selected viral infections in pediatric population. This article will discuss commonly used antivirals, their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, mechanisms of action, spectrum of activity, and toxicities. Biologics such as interferons will also be discussed.
Worrel G. Herpes labialis. BMJ Clin Evid 2009;2009:1704.
Spruance SL, Nett R, Marbury T, et al. Acyclovir cream for treatment of herpes simplex labialis: results of two randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicenter clinical trials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46(7):2238–2243. DOI: 10.1128/aac.46.7.2238-2243.2002.
Guess S, Stone DU, Chodosh J. Evidence-based treatment of herpes simplex virus keratitis: a systematic review. Ocul Surf 2007;5(3):240–250. DOI: 10.1016/s1542-0124(12)70614-6.
Davies N, Babar RK, Michael B, Herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Encephalitis society. https://www.encephalitis.info/herpessimplexvirusencephalitis.
Kimkberlin DW. Acyclovir dosing in the neonatal period and beyond. J Paediatr Infect Dis 2013;2:179–182. DOI: 10.1093/jpids/ pis138.
Genital HSV Infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/herpes.htm.
Gnann Jr JW. Antiviral therapy of varicella-zoster virus infections. In: Arvin A, Campadelli-Fiume G, Mocarski E, et al. Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis, ch. 65, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2007. Available from: https://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK47401/.
Valaciclovir. BNF for children 2017. Published jointly by BMJ Group, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JP, UK and Pharmaceutical Press, Royal Pharmaceutical Society. UK. 2017–2018. pp. 389–390.
Foscarnet sodium. BNF for children 2017. Published jointly by BMJ Group, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JP, UK and Pharmaceutical Press, Royal Pharmaceutical Society. UK. 2017–2018. pp. 389–390.
Ganciclovir. IAP Drug Formulary 2019. 5th ed. Unni JC, Nair MKC, Menon PSN Publication of Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Pixel studio; 2019. p. 395.
Moodley A, Bradley JS, Kimberlin DW. Antiviral treatment of childhood influenza: an update. Curr Opin Pediatr 2018;30(3):438–447. DOI: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000618.
Respiratory syncytial virus. BNF for children 2017. Published jointly by BMJ Group, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JP, UK and Pharmaceutical Press, Royal Pharmaceutical Society. UK. 2017–2018. p. 410.
Wong WWL, Pechivanoglou P, Wong J, et al. Antiviral treatment for treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Syst Rev 2019;8(1):207. DOI: 10.1186/s13643-019-1126-1.
Lingala S, Lau DT, Koh C, et al. Long-term lamivudine therapy in chronic hepatitis B. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2016;44(4):380–389. DOI: 10.1111/apt.13707.
Hepatitis C, WHO recommendations. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c.
AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Human immunodeficiency virus; HIV). IAP Drug Formulary 2019 Unni JC, Nair MKC, Menon PSN 5th ed., Publication of Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Pixel studio; 2019. pp. 101–102.