Pediatric Infectious Disease

Register      Login

VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2022 ) > List of Articles

IMMUNISATION DIALOGUE

Endgame Polio: Role of Novel Oral Polio Vaccine Type 2

Sumitha Nayak

Keywords : Endgame polio, Infectious disease, Novel oral polio vaccine, Oral polio vaccine, Vaccination, Vaccines

Citation Information : Nayak S. Endgame Polio: Role of Novel Oral Polio Vaccine Type 2. Pediatr Inf Dis 2022; 4 (4):151-152.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1372

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 31-12-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Polio eradication efforts have seen major advances since 1988 when the thrust for eradication was initiated on a global level. The endgame polio strategy, as announced by the World Health Organization (WHO), is a program from 2019 to 2023 that attempts at the four-point target of eradication, integration, containment, and certification of polio that has ravaged the world across centuries. According to the latest available data, Pakistan has reported 11 cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in 2022, while Afghanistan reported four cases since the start of 2022. Mozambique reported one case of WPV1 in March 2022, while Malawi had one reported case in November 2021. Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) types 1, 2, and 3 have been reported from various parts of the globe, especially from the African continent. Active methods are needed to combat and mitigate the spread of PV, especially in the vulnerable and under-immunized regions of the world. The WHO has authorized the use of a novel oral polio vaccine (nOPV), which has been found to be more stable and not revert to neurovirulence when used in the community. These candidates’ vaccine is being used in cases of outbreaks of cVDPV, with good results.


PDF Share
  1. World Health Organisation. Polio Endgame Strategy 2019-2023. Eradication, Integration, Containment and Certification; 2019. [accessed 2022 Jul 18]. Available from: https://polioeradication.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/english-polio-endgame-strategy.pdf
  2. Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Polio now. [accessed 2022 Jul 20]. Available from: https://polioeradication.org/polio-today/polio-now/
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Global Polio Eradication Information. [accessed 2022 Jul 23]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/polio/gpei/index.htm
  4. Martin J, Burns CC, Jorba J, et al. Genetic characterization of novel oral polio vaccine type 2 viruses during initial use phase under emergency use listing—worldwide, March-October 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71(24):786–790. DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7124a2
  5. Coster ID, Leroux-Roels I, Bandyopadhyay AS, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of two novel type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine candidates compared with monovalent type 2 oral polio virus vaccine in healthy adults: two clinical trials. Lancet 2021;397(10268):39–50. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32541-1
  6. Global Polio Eradication Initiative. [accessed 2022 Aug 4]. Available from: https://polioeradication.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/GPEI_cVDPV2-nOPV2_Factsheet_13-Jan-2022-EN.pdf
  7. Wahid R, Mercer L, Macadam A, et al. Assessment of genetic changes and neurovirulence of shed Sabin and novel type 2 oral polio vaccine viruses. NPJ Vaccines 2021;6(1):94. DOI: 10.1038/s41541-021-00355-y
  8. Global Polio Eradication Initiative. nOPV2. [accessed 2022 Aug 9]. Available from: https://polioeradication.org/nopv2/
  9. WHO Africa. Pursuing the Endgame: Novel Polio Vaccine Rollout in Africa. [accessed 2022 Aug 9]. Available from: https://www.afro.who.int/news/pursuing-endgame-novel-polio-vaccine-rollout-africa
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.