Pediatric Infectious Disease

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2020 | April-June | Volume 2 | Issue 2

EDITORIAL

Vijay N Yewale, Bhaskar Shenoy

Editorial

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/pid-2-2-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Chairperson\'s Page

Jaydeep Choudhury

Chairperson's Page

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/pid-2-2-v  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Original Article

Mohan Makwana, Sangeeta Kumari, Harish K Mourya, Ramavtar Mitharwal, Shivji Ram

A Study to Find out the Relationship between Various Platelet Indices and Morbidity Profile of Dengue Fever in Pediatric Patients on Admission in Western Rajasthan, India

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:43 - 50]

Keywords: Dengue fever, MPV, PDW, Platelet indices, Plateletcrit, PLCR

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1252  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Dengue is a major international public health concern. Various clinical and biochemical parameters are being used to predict severity of this disease. Blood platelets and their indices are one of them. Platelet indices like mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) have been investigated as prospective platelet activation indicators. Aims and objectives: To find out the relationship between the platelet indices at admission and morbidity profile of dengue patients. Materials and methods: The study was an observational study conducted on patients of pediatric age group in Department of Pediatrics, Dr SN Medical College, Jodhpur, over a period of 1 year. All ELISA (IgM + IgG) positive cases were enrolled in the study. Results: In this study high MPV, high PDW, and high P-LCR were associated with longer duration of hospital stay and longer duration of fluid therapy requirement. These patients required ICU care more frequently, more time to recover from severe thrombocytopenia (TCP), and had deranged SGPT and serum creatinine values, which were commonly seen with high MPV. Shock was more frequently seen with high MPV, and bleeding manifestations were more common with low MPV. Almost 80% patients were admitted with low plateletcrit (PCT), which was associated with longer duration of hospital stay, longer duration of fluid therapy, required ICU care more frequently, required more time to recover from severe TCP, landed up in shock more frequently, and required more blood product transfusion. High MPV, high P-LCR, low PCT, and severe TCP were associated with more frequent positive tourniquet test with a highly significant p value. Bleeding manifestations and neurological symptoms were seen more with low MPV. Conclusion: We observed significant correlation of P-LCR, PDW, and MPV on admission with those morbidity parameters. High MPV, high P-LCR, high PDW, and low PCT were associated with longer duration of hospital stay, fluid therapy requirement, time taken to recover from TCP, frequent requirement of ICU care, and more frequent liver and renal function dysfunctions. They had higher chances of developing dengue shock syndrome.

Original Article

Purvi Patel, Halak Vasavada, Snehal V Patel, Khushbu Patel, Payal Rathva

A Study of the Impact of Lockdown on Vaccination Coverage at a Tertiary Care Center

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:51 - 54]

Keywords: Immunization, Lockdown, Pandemic, Vaccination

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1264  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: The aim and objective of the this study is to study the impact of lockdown on vaccination coverage at a tertiary care center. Materials and methods: It was a retrospective analytical study carried out at Shardaben Hospital, Saraspur, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.. The study period was April–May 2019 and April–May 2020. Results: In our study, during lockdown period, number of vaccinated children were lower in May (837) as compared to April (1,352) in year 2020. Total number of deliveries increased to 507 in April 2020 compared to 388 in April 2019 resulting in more inborn vaccination in April 2020 (92.50%). In May 2020, total number of deliveries (386) were less compared to April 2020 (507) and May 2019 (505). The birth vaccination is 92.50% in April 2020 and 83.56% in May 2020. In April, the DPT booster vaccination rates reduced by 87% while MR vaccination reduced by 58%. In May, there was reduction in DPT booster at 5 years (96.66%) and pentavalent third dose (78.94%) and MR (78.57%). Conclusion: There has been significant reduction in attendance to the immunization clinic for routine vaccination during the lockdown period secondary to coronavirus pandemic. The reduction has been more in May 2020 as compared to April 2020 because of peaking of cases during that time in the area with it being declared as containment zone during that period. Clinical significance: There has been a significant impact of lockdown on routine immunization under five children and an urgent vaccination drive is the need of the hour.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Malavalli V Bhavana, Apurva S Amarnath, Satish K Amarnath

Coronavirus Disease-2019 and More: The Story of Coronaviruses So Far

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:55 - 61]

Keywords: Coronavirus, Coronavirus disease-2019, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1265  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Coronaviruses are not new to the human population. These enveloped ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses have been the cause for various respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. They have caused serious epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) earlier. Now, we are battling the current pandemic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Though this novel virus has relatively low fatality, it has engulfed the word due to its high infectivity. This review is an attempt to take you through the story of coronaviruses so far, highlighting their virology, evolution, and spectrum of diseases. We have reviewed the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy, newborns and children, testing and preventive strategies, herd immunity, and the way forward in this ongoing battle.

CASE REPORT

Aarti Kinikar, Rajesh Kulkarni, Uday Rajput, Rajesh Karyakarte

Acute Encephalopathy in a Child with Coronavirus Disease-2019 Infection

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:62 - 63]

Keywords: Atypical, Children, COVID-19, Encephalopathy, SARS-CoV-2

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1244  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global health crisis. Children account for 1–5% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases with relatively mild presentation and less mortality compared to adults. While patients typically present with fever, shortness of breath, and cough, neurologic manifestations have been reported, mainly in adults. We report a case of COVID-19-associated encephalopathy in an 11-year-old child who presented with altered sensorium and seizures.

Case File

Prasanna N Raju, Pradheep S Raju, Raju Subramanian

Varied Clinical Manifestations of Chikungunya—A Case Series

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:64 - 66]

Keywords: Acrocyanosis, Chikungunya, Infants, Neonates, Vesiculobullous lesions

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1254  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: The aim and objective of this study is to report varied clinical manifestations of chikungunya amongst different pediatric age groups. Background: Chikungunya is an arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which has caused epidemic outbreaks in the past. The clinical manifestations vary widely among neonate, infant, and pediatric age groups. Case descriptions: We report four cases (two neonatal and two pediatric cases) of chikungunya. Neonates in this case series had predominant neurological and cutaneous manifestations. The older age groups in this series however had circulatory and cutaneous manifestations. All children reported in this case series had fever, lethargy, and thrombocytopenia. Chikungunya was confirmed by CHIKv PCR in all the cases. All cases reported recovered with appropriate neonatal/pediatric intensive care management. Conclusion: The spectrum of chikungunya disease is different in neonates and infants as compared to older children. Though it is predominantly a benign illness, its presentation can mimic commonly seen emergencies like viral encephalitis or septic shock. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for diagnosis. Clinical significance: Chikungunya should be considered as a differential diagnosis in neonates presenting with fever, typical hyperpigmentation, and encephalopathy. Neonates born to mothers with chikungunya should be closely observed for symptoms in the 1st week of life. Children, unlike adults, can have more of hematological and cutaneous than rheumatological manifestations. Management of chikungunya is predominantly symptomatic. Early clinical diagnosis can avoid irrational use of antibiotics.

Antimicrobials

Anuradha Vinod, Bhaskar Shenoy

Time to Fight the New with the Old—Old Antibiotics in New Role

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:67 - 69]

Keywords: Infections, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1242  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Current medical practice is seeing a rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria because of inappropriate antibiotic usage. New antibiotics discoveries are not at par with the rapidly developing drug resistance. To tide over these circumstances, old antibiotics are now being revived researched and assigned new roles. Antibiotics, such as colistin, nitrofurantoin, polymyxin, etc., are used in nosocomial and critical care setting to tackle the multidrug-resistant bacteria. Even the use of old antibiotics should be pathogen centered and inappropriate use should be avoided. In this study, we are trying to throw some light on some of the old antibiotics which are currently in use and their efficacy. A lot of research is still required to optimize the drug dosing and prevention of side effects of these older antibiotics.

Notes From The Lab

Aruna Poojary

Laboratory Diagnosis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus-2 Infection

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:70 - 74]

Keywords: COVID-19, Laboratory diagnosis, Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1234  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS–CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus responsible for the current pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) leading to respiratory tract infections including adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Microbiology confirmation with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is essential for diagnosis of COVID-19 disease. Real-time polymerase chain reaction has an important role to play in individual patient management as well as in part of pandemic control measures like isolation, quarantine, and containment. Serological methods for antibody detection play an important role in population surveillance and do not have much role in the diagnosis of the disease.

Immunization Dialogue

Arun Wadhwa

Vaccines for SARS-CoV-2

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:75 - 77]

Keywords: Coronavirus vaccination, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1246  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The novel coronavirus infection emerged in Wuhan in the late 2019 which later spread across the globe and was declared as a pandemic in March 2020. The virus was named by World Health Organization as SARS-CoV-2 and the disease caused by it as COVID-19 on 11 February, 2020. The disease leads to respiratory distress syndrome and mortality, especially in elderly and people with comorbidities. The treatment remains supportive, in the absence of specific treatment, prevention is the only answer. Apart from physical distancing, hand washing, and masks, vaccination is a futuristic option. Although work has started in full swing, the vaccine may not be available before 12–18 months. Here, the vaccine scenario changes by the day, but I have tried to evaluate the types of vaccines possible and the ones where trials have started.

VIEWPOINT

Mridula A Manjunath

Learning to Live with Coronavirus Disease…

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:78 - 78]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1261  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Immunology Corner

Sagar Bhattad

Cytokine Storm Syndrome: What Every Physician must Know Today?

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:79 - 81]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1251  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Journal Watch

Vikram S Kumar

Whats In?

[Year:2020] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:82 - 83]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1263  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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