Pediatric Infectious Disease

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2021 | April-June | Volume 3 | Issue 2

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[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

   DOI: 10.5005/pid-3-2-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Original Article

Birendra Prasad Gupta, Tarun Saluja, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe

Epidemiology of Typhoid in Nepal: Review of Literature to Identify High Burden Area for Potential Use of Typhoid Vaccine

[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:51 - 56]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1297  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: Enteric fever has caused significant morbidity and will even get worse if the predisposing risk factors of the disease are not controlled. The rainy season accounts for the high incidence of enteric fever along with other diarrheal diseases in Nepal. This study aims to screen the high burden zone of typhoid cases in Nepal for the prospective use of typhoid conjugate vaccine for the disease. Materials and methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and the World Health Organization (WHO) website for scientific literature published until December 2018. Additional publications identified through grey literature search, outbreak news-related online databases, and national reports from Nepal were reviewed. We summarized reported outbreaks of typhoid in Nepal by reported year, region, size of the outbreak, and major age group affected followed by the number of typhoid cases by year, region, and district reported to the Epidemiology and Disease Control Division (EDCD). Results: Since the first report of the typhoid outbreak in 1984, there have been multiple publications describing typhoid in Nepal. Studies were conducted predominantly from Kathmandu valley during the rainy season; however, outbreaks have been reported at other parts of Nepal including Hilly and Mountain regions. While all age groups were affected by typhoid, children to young adults were frequently reported with the highest proportion. The data show that typhoid cases are on increase in all the five development regions (Eastern, Central, Western, Mid-Western, and Far-Western Development region), except in the far western region where the slight decrease was observed from 2013/2014 to 2014/2015 while an increasing trend was observed after 2015/2016. Conclusion: We found typhoid cases are on increase and have become a pressing public health issue and concerned authorities should put their serious efforts to mitigate the problem. There are many challenges on the way to control the disease, inaccurate diagnosis, inadequate treatment, and increasing multidrug resistance are a few of them. A combined approach of vaccination and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) may lead to a considerable drop in the incidence of this disease.



Mitesh Shetty

Genomics in Infectious Diseases

[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:57 - 64]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1296  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


For the effective care, rehabilitation, and protection of patients, recognizing and characterizing microorganisms that cause infection are essential. In the diagnostic laboratory, however, not all bacterial species can be cultured successfully. Genomics and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can greatly enhance human knowledge and understanding of infectious diseases. The ability to assess the microbial community without the need to culture the species has created the ever-growing field of metagenomics and microbiome analysis. Currently, the principal possible applications of WGS in the diagnostic microbiology laboratory for characterizing bacterial pathogen are identification, typing, detection of resistance, and virulence gene detection. In addition, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has helped understand the genome of SARS-CoV-2 early and provided insight into epidemiology, expansion of COVID-19, early and efficient production of the vaccine. The metagenomic sequencing (mNGS) microbial cell-free DNA testing for infection diagnosis is gaining traction. More specifically, for clinicians and specialists in the clinical microbiology community, paradigm shifts in understanding molecular diagnostics are required. A comprehensive clinical review should complement NGS's diagnostic study, which (a) demonstrates clinical effectiveness, (b) guides the use, and (c) exposes possible fields of misunderstood use. Both conventional culture-based technologies and molecular diagnostics have several strengths and limitations.



Seema Sharma

Current Evidence on Coronavirus Disease-2019: A Comprehensive Review

[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:65 - 73]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1286  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become an unprecedented public health challenge for clinicians and policymakers across the globe. COVID-19, the infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been shown to affect all ages, particularly, the aged and elderly, and has reached massive proportions globally. We aim to review the current clinical epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, and treatment for this rapidly growing novel disease globally, and discuss infection prevention, control, and management strategies put forth by World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) to the Govt of India, and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for this huge public health concern. Reviewing the current evidence for COVID-19 is imperative to help understand effective preventive and treatment measures for this novel threat to humanity.



K Dhanalakshmi

Remdesivir in Children

[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:74 - 76]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1295  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Case Files

Vaishnavi Bhimana, Lalitha Janakiraman

Chikungunya in Infants: A Case Series

[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:77 - 78]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1289  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes—Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Though Indian subcontinent is known to be an endemic area for Chikungunya, it is rare in infants. During the recent outbreak, vesiculobullous blistering was noticed in infants and aphthous-like skin lesions in adults. Here we are presenting a case series of 15 infants who were diagnosed with chikungunya with similar presentations. Results: The median age of infants was 5 months and 10/15 (67%) were less than 6 months and 8/15 (53.3%) were males. Fever was present in all the infants with biphasic fever noted in 7/15 cases (46%). Skin manifestations were noted in all infants. Flaccid vesiculobullous lesions were noted on day 3–5 of fever with peeling of skin in 2nd week of illness in 11/15 (73.3%) infants. Three infants had maculopapular rash, which was noticed on day 2 of fever. Rash was noted in the legs (8/15) in all the infants with majority of them involving the medial aspect of the thigh. Flushing was present in 9/15 (60%). Conjunctivitis (nonexudative) was noted in 5/15 (33.3%) infants. The course was complicated by PICU stay in 5/15 (33%) infants. The median day of discharge was day 8 of illness (range—6–11 days). Conclusion: Infants with chikungunya have a peculiar presentation in the form of extensive cutaneous involvement. As chikungunya is an epidemic disease in India, with the above clinical presentation the possibility of chikungunya should be considered.



Sara S Dhanawade, Aditya V Kurade

Tuberculous Meningitis and COVID-19 Coinfection: A Diagnostic Challenge

[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:79 - 80]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1299  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection in children is not well documented. We hereby report a case of tuberculous meningitis and COVID-19 coinfection complicated by hydrocephalus and multiple arterial infarcts. The overlapping clinical presentation posed a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.



Acute Encephalopathy as a Presenting Symptom of Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis in Children

[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:81 - 82]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1291  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


In this case report, we describe a child who had fever and encephalopathy at the time of presentation. Nontyphoidal salmonellosis causing encephalopathy in children is scarcely described in the literature, and in those, concurrent abdominal symptoms were also well manifested. In our report, the abdominal findings were rather absent, and most clinical symptoms pointed toward a CNS infection. Active CNS infection was ruled out through CSF examination and the culprit for encephalopathy was found out through blood culture. Through this case report, we want to make the practicing clinicians aware of the possibility of nontyphoidal salmonellosis to present as encephalopathy alone without any obvious abdominal symptoms to suspect the disease.


Immunology Corner

Fungal Infections and Immune Deficiency

[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:83 - 85]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1304  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Fungal infections, also called mycoses, are important causes of mortality and morbidity in humans. Compromised immunity is the most important predisposing factor for clinically significant fungal infections. In this paper, the antifungal immune defense has been discussed and a simplified approach to immune deficiencies with increased susceptibility to fungi has been provided.


Immunization Dialogue

Immunization Dialogue on COVID Vaccines

[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:86 - 88]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1301  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Journal Watch

What's in—Infectious Diseases?

[Year:2021] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:89 - 89]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10081-1308  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


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